Books for Issuing Fatwā According to the Ḥanafī Madhhab

Question:

Assalamu-Alaikum,

My questions are as follows:

1 – What are the most essential books of fatwa in the Hanafi school?

2 – I notice many Hanafi scholars using books of ulum al hadith that are in accordance with the other three schools of fiqh, could you please provide some sources of ulum al hadith that look at the science based on the Hanafi school?

Jazakallahu Khairan

(Question published as received)

Answer:

In the Name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-raḥmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

At the outset, we wish to clarify that the field of Iftā is an incredibly delicate and complex field.[1] It requires for one to have a detailed understanding of Sharῑ’ah to issue a Fatwā. More importantly, one must study the field of Iftā under an expert teacher.

‘Allāmah Ibn ‘Abidῑn Raḥimahullah (d.1252 AH) writes:

وَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ فِيْ فَتَاوَى الْعَلَّامَة ابْنِ حَجَر: سُئِلَ فِيْ شَخْصٍ يَقْرَأُ وَيُطَالِعُ الْكُتُبَ الْفِقْهِيَّةَ بِنَفْسِهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَيْخٌ وَيُفْتِيْ وَيَعْتَمِدُ عَلَى مُطَالَعَتِهِ فِي الْكُتُبِ فَهَلْ يَجُوْزُ لَهُ ذَلِكَ أَمْ لَا؟

فَأَجَابَ بِقَوْلِهِ لَا يَجُوْزُ لَهُ الْإِفْتَاءُ بِوَجْهٍ مِّنَ الْوُجُوْهِ لِأَنَّهُ عَامِيٌّ جَاهِلٌ لَا يَدْرِيْ مَا يَقُوْلُ

Translation:

“Indeed I saw in the Fatāwā of ‘Allāmah Ibn Ḥajar that he was asked regarding a person who prays and studies the books of Fiqh on his own and does not have a teacher, he then gives a Fatwā relying upon his study of books, is this permissible for him?

He (Ibn Ḥajar) replied “it is not permissible for such a person to issue a Fatwā under any circumstance, for he is an ignorant layman who is unaware of what he is saying”

How is a Fatwā issued in accordance to the anaf Madhab?

Before presenting the essential books of Fatwā according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab, it is important to understand an underlying principle which outlines how a Fatwā is given according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab.

The fundamental rule for giving a Fatwā according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab is [2]:

“By default, Fatwā is given upon the rulings found in the books of Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah. However, if the Ḥanafῑ Fuqahā who were worthy of giving preference gave preference to a view that is contrary to what is found in the books of Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah, then Fatwā shall be given upon the view that the Ḥanafῑ Fuqahā who were worthy of giving preference have given preference to and not the view found in the books of Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah”

The Important Books Required for Issuing a Fatwā According to the anaf Madhab

After understanding the fundamental rule mentioned above, it is understood that the important books for Fatwā according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab are of four types:

  • The books of Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah
  • The books written by the Ḥanafῑ Madhab who were worthy of giving preference
  • The books of Al Mutūn Al Mu’tabarah (The Reliable Texts)
  • The books written by the later scholars

We shall briefly list these 4 types of books.

The Books of āhir Al Riwāyah

The books of Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah are the books written by Imām Muḥammad (d.189 AH) with the purpose of presenting the rulings of the Ḥanafῑ Madhab. In these books, Imām Muḥammad (d.189 AH) records the view of Imām Abū Ḥanῑfah (d.150 AH), Imām Abū Yūsuf (d.182 AH), and his personal view.

The Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah are five books in total [3]:

  • Al Al (in print)
  • Al Jāmi’ Al aghr (in print)
  • Al Jāmi’ Al Kabr (in print)
  • Ziyādat and Ziyādat Al Ziyādāt (not in print)
  • Al Siyar Al Kabr (not in print)

The Books written by the anaf Fuqahā who were Worthy of Giving Preference

These books include:

  • Muntakab Al Fatāwā by Aḥmad Al Khassāf (d.261 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Kāf by Ḥākim Al Shahῑd (d.334 AH) (manuscript)
  • Mukhtaar Al Karkh by Imām Al Karkhῑ (d.340 AH) (manuscript)
  • Mukhtaar Al aāw by Imām Abū Ja’far Al Ṭaḥāwῑ (321 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Mukhtaar Al aāw by Abū Bakr Al Jasṣāṣ Al Rāzῑ (d.370 AH) (in print)
  • ‘Uyūn Al Masāil by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH)[4] (in print)
  • Fatāwā Al Nawāzil by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Muqaddimah Al Samarqandiyyah by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (manuscript)
  • Khizānah Al Fiqh by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (in print)
  • Mukhtalaf Al Riwāyah by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (in print)
  • Muqaddimah Al Ṣalāh by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (manuscript)
  • Shar Al Jāmi’ Al Kabr by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Tajrd by Imām Al Qudūrῑ (d.428 AH) (in print)
  • Mukhtaar Al Qudūr by Imām Al Qudūrῑ (d.428 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Mukhtaar Al Karkh by Imām Al Qudūrῑ (d.428 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Ajnās by Imām Al Nāṭifῑ (d.446 AH) (in print)
  • Kitāb Jumal Al Akām by Imām Al Nāṭifῑ (d.446 AH) (in print)
  • Al Nutaf Fil Fatāwā by ‘Alῑ Al Saghdῑ (d.461 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Mukhtaar Al Qudūr by Aḥmad Al Aqṭa’ (d.474 AH) (manuscript)
  • Shar Mukhtaar Al aāw by Imām Aḥmad ibn Manṣūr Al Isbῑjābῑ (d.480 AH) (manuscript)
  • Shar Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr by Imām Aḥmad ibn Manṣūr Al Isbῑjābῑ (d.480 AH) (manuscript)
  • Shar Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr by Imām Al Bazdawῑ (d.482 AH) (manuscript)
  • Shar Al Jami’ Al Kabr by Imām Al Bazdawῑ (d.482 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Mabsū by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Al Siyar Al Kabr by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH) (in print)
  • Al Nukat Shar Ziyādāt Al Ziyādāt by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH) (manuscript)
  • Shar Mukhtasar Al Qudūr by Abū Bakr Khwāhir Zādah (d.483 AH) (manuscript)
  • Khizānatul Akmal by Yūsuf ibn ‘Alῑ Al Jurjānῑ (d.522 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr by ‘Allāmah Ṣadr Al Shahῑd (d.536 AH) (in print)
  • Al Manūmah Fil Khilāfiyyāt by Najm Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.537 AH) (in print)
  • Tufah Al Fuqahā by ‘Ala Al Dῑn Al Samarqandῑ (d.539 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Al Siyar Al Kabr by ‘Ala Al Dῑn Al Samarqandῑ (d.539 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Walwāljiyyah by ‘Abdul Rashῑd Al Walwāljῑ (d.540 AH) (in print)
  • Al Multaqa Fil Fatāwā Al anafiyyah by Nāṣir Al Dῑn Al Samarqandῑ (d.556 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fiqh Al Nāfi’ by Nāṣir Al Dῑn Al Samarqandῑ (d.556 AH) (in print)
  • Jawāhir Al Fatāwā by Muhammad ibn Abd Al Rashid Al Kirmani (d.565 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Sirājiyyah by Sirāj Al Dῑn Al Awshῑ (d.569 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr by Aḥmad Al ‘Attābῑ (d.586 AH) (manuscript)
  • Jawāmi’ Al Fiqh by Aḥmad Al ‘Attābῑ (d.586 AH) (manuscript)
  • Shar Al Ziyādāt by Aḥmad Al ‘Attābῑ (d.586 AH) (manuscript)
  • Badāi’ Al anāi’ by ‘Alā Al Dῑn Al Kāsānῑ (d.587 AH) (in print)
  • Zād Al Fuqahā Shar Mukhtaar Al Qudūr by Imām Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al Isbῑjābῑ (d.591 AH) (manuscript)
  • Shar Al Ziyādāt by Imām Qādhῑ Khān (d.592 AH) (in print)
  • Fatāwā Qādh Khān by Imām Qādhῑ Khān (d.592 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr by Imām Qādhῑ Khān (d.592 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Hidāyah Shar Bidāyah Al Mubtad by ‘Allāmah Abū Bakr Al Murghῑnānῑ (d.593 AH) (in print)
  • Mukhtārāt Al Nawāzil by ‘Allāmah Abū Bakr Al Murghῑnānῑ (d.593 AH) (in print)
  • Al Tajns Wal Mazd by ‘Allāmah Abū Bakr Al Murghῑnānῑ (d.593 AH) (in print)
  • Al āw Al Quds by Aḥmad ibn Maḥmūd Al Ghaznawῑ (d.593 AH) (in print)
  • Khulāah Al Dalāil F Tanq Al Masāil by Ḥusām Al Dῑn Al Rāzῑ (d.598 AH) (in print)
  • Al Mu Al Burhān by Burhān Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ (d.616 AH) (in print)
  • Khulāah Al Fatāwā by Ṭāhir ibn ‘Abd Al Rashῑd Al Bukhārῑ (d.post 600 AH) (in print)
  • Al Wiqāyah by Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Ubaydillah Al Maḥbūbῑ (d.673 AH) (in print)
  • Al Kāf Shar Al Wāf by Ḥāfidh Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Mustafā Shar Al Fiqh Al Nāfi’ by Ḥāfidh Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)
  • Fat Al Qadr by Ibn Al Hummām (d.861 AH) (in print)

Al Mūtun Al Mu’tabarah (The Reliable Texts)

The Al Mutūn Al Mu’tabarah (Reliable Texts) are books written with the purpose of compiling the views of Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah.[5] They are six in total:

  • Mukhtaar Al Qudūr by Imām Al Qudūrῑ (d.428 AH) (in print)
  • Al Mukhtār by ‘Abdullah Al Mawṣilῑ (d.683 AH) (in print)
  • Al Wiqāyah by Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Ubaydillah Al Maḥbūbῑ (d.673 AH) (in print)
  • Kanz Al Daqāiq by Ḥāfidh Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.710 AH) (in print)
  • Al Nuqāyah by ‘Ubaydullah ibn Mas’ūd ibn Maḥmūd Al Maḥbūbῑ (d.747 AH) (in print)
  • Multaqā Al Abhur by Ibrāhῑm Al Ḥalabῑ (d.956 AH) (in print)

The Books Written by the Later Fuqahā

These book include:

  • Al Masālik Fil Manāsik by Muḥammad Al Kirmānῑ (d.597 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al ahriyyah by Ẓahῑr Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ (d.619 AH) (manuscript)
  • Jāmi’ Akām Al ighār by Muḥammad ibn Maḥmūd Al Asrūshnῑ (d.632 AH) (in print)
  • Al Mujtabā Shar Al Qudūr by Najm Al Dῑn Al Zāhidῑ (d.658 AH) (manuscript)
  • Qunyah Al Munyah Li Tatmm Al Ghunyah by Najm Al Dῑn Al Zāhidῑ (d.658 AH) (in print)
  • Tufah Al Mulūk by Zayn Al Dῑn Al Rāzῑ (d.666 AH) (in print)
  • Al Ikhtiyār Li Ta’ll Al Mukhtār by ‘Abdullah Al Mawṣilῑ (d.683 AH) (in print)
  • Majma’ Al Barain by Aḥmad ibn ‘Alῑ Al Sā’ātῑ (d.694 AH) (in print)
  • Niāb Al Itisāb by ‘Umar ibn Muḥammad Al Sanāmῑ (ca.700 AH-725 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Ghiyāthiyyah by Dāwūd ibn Yūsuf Al Khatῑb (ca.700 AH – 800 AH) (in print)
  • Al Nihāyah Shar Al Hidāyah by Ḥusain ibn ‘Alῑ Al Saghnāqῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Ghāyah Sharḥ Al Hidāyah by Aḥmad Al Sarūjῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)
  • Tabyn Al aqāiq by ‘Uthmān Al Zayla’ῑ’ (d.743 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Al Wiqāyah by ‘Ubaydullah ibn Mas’ūd Al Maḥbūbῑ (d.747 AH) (in print)
  • Mi’rāj Al Dirāyah Shar Al Hidayah by Qiwām Al Dῑn Al Kākῑ (d.749 AH) (manuscript)
  • Ghāyah Al Bayān Shar Al Hidāyah by Qiwām Al Dῑn Al Itqānῑ (d.758 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Fatāwā Al arsūsiyyah by Najm Al Dῑn Al Ṭarsūsῑ (d.758 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Tātārkhāniyyah by Farῑd Al Dῑn Al Andarpatῑ (d.786 AH) (in print)
  • Jawāhir Al Fiqh by Ṭāhir Al Khawārizmῑ (he finished writing the book in 771 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al ‘Inayah Shar Al idāyah by Akmal Al Dῑn Al Bābartῑ (d.786 AH) (in print)
  • Al Jawharah Al Nayyirah by Abū Bakr Al Ḥaddād (d.800 AH) (in print)
  • Al Tashl Shar Laāif Al Ishārāt by Imām Ibn Qādhῑ Samāwinah (d.823 AH) (in print)
  • Jāmi’ Al Fuūlayn by Imām Ibn Qādhῑ Samāwinah (d.823 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Bazāziyyah by Muḥammad Al Kurdῑ Al Bazāzῑ (d.827 AH) (in print)
  • Fatāwā Qār Al Hidāyah by Sirāj Al Dῑn Abū Hafs ‘Umar (d.829 AH) (in print)
  • Al Bar Al ‘Amq by Ibn Ḍiyā Al Makkῑ (d.854 AH) (in print)
  • Al Bināyah Shar Al Hidāyah by Badr Al Dῑn Al ‘Aynῑ (d.855 AH) (in print)
  • Ramz Al aqāiq Shar Kanz Al Daqāiq by Badr Al Dῑn Al ‘Aynῑ (d.855 AH) (in print)
  • Minah Al Sulūk Shar Kitāb Tufah Al Mulūk by Badr Al Dῑn Al ‘Aynῑ (d.855 AH) (in print)
  • albah Al Majall Shar Munyah Al Muall by Ibn Amῑr Al Ḥāj (d.879 AH) (in print)
  • Al Taṣḥ Wal Tarj by Qāsim ibn Quṭlūbugāh (d.879 AH) (in print)
  • Durar Al ukkām by Mullā Kusrow (d.885 AH) (in print)
  • Shar Manūmah ibn Wahbān by Ibn Shaḥnah (d.921 AH) (in print)
  • Fatāwā Mu’ayyid Zādah by ‘Abd Al Raḥman Al Amāsῑ (d.922 AH) (manuscript)
  • Mafāt Al Jinān Shar Shir’ah Al Islām by Ya’qūb ib Sayyid (d.931 AH) (in print)
  • Jāmi’ Al Rumūz by Al Quhistānῑ (ca. 953 AH) (in print)
  • Ghunyah Al Mutamall Shar Munyah Al Muall by Ibrāhῑm Al Ḥalabῑ (d.956 AH) (in print)
  • Al Barur Rāiq by Ibn Nujaym Al Miṣrῑ (d.970 AH) (in print)
  • Al Nahrul Fāiq by ‘Umar Ibn Nujaym Al Miṣrῑ (d.1005 AH) (in print)
  • Fatāwā Al Tumurtāsh by Muḥammad Al Tumurtāshῑ (d.1007 AH) (in print)
  • Mu’n Al Muft ‘An Jawāb Al Mustaft by Muḥammad Al Tumurtāshῑ (d.1007 AH) (in print)
  • Fat Bāb Al ‘Ināyah by Mullā ‘Alῑ Al Qārῑ (d.1014 AH) (in print)
  • āshiyah Irshād Al Sār by Mullā ‘Alῑ Al Qārῑ (d.1014 AH) (in print)
  • Fatāwā Al Askūb by Bῑr Muḥammad Al Qusṭumūnῑ (d.1020 AH) (manuscript)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Ibrāhmiyyah by Ibrāhῑm ibn Ḥasan (d.1047 AH) (in print)
  • Fatāwā Yayā Affend by Yaḥyā Effendῑ (d.1053 AH) (manuscript)
  • Imdād Al Fattā by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)
  • Sabl Al Falā by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)
  • Taysr Al Maqāid by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)
  • Marāqil Falā by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)
  • āshiyah ‘Alā Durar Al ukkām by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)
  • Majma’ Al Anhur Shar Multaqā Al Abhur by Imām Shaykhῑ Zadah (d.1078 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Khayriyyah by Khayr Al Dῑn Al Ramlῑ (d.1081 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Hindiyyah compiled between 1077 AH to 1086 AH (in print)
  • Al Durr Al Mukhtār by ‘Alā Al Dῑn Al Ḥaṣkafῑ (d.1088 AH) (in print)
  • Al Dur Al Muntaqā by ‘Alā Al Dῑn Al Ḥaṣkafῑ (d.1088 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al As’adiyyah by As’ad Al Madanῑ (d.1116 AH) (in print)
  • Nihāyah Al Murād by ‘Abdul Ghanῑ Al Nablūsῑ (d.1143 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Hammādiyyah by Rukn ibn Ḥusām Al Nāghorῑ (d. na)
  • Rashaāt Al Aqlām Shar Kifāyah Al Ghulām by ‘Abdul Ghanῑ Al Nablūsῑ (d.1143 AH) (in print)
  • Al Fatāwā Al Iqnā’iyyah by ‘Abdul Ḥamῑd Al Sibā’ῑ’ (d.1220 AH) (in print)
  • āshiyah Al aḥṭāw ‘Alā Marāqil Falā by ‘Allāmah Taḥtāwῑ (d.1231 AH) (in print)
  • āshiyah Al aḥṭāw ‘Alā Dur Al Mukhtār by ‘Allāmah Taḥtāwῑ (d.1231 AH) (in print)
  • Radd Al Mutār by Ibn ‘Abidῑn Al Shāmῑ (d.1252 AH) (in print)
  • Tanq Al Fatāwā Al āmidiyyah by Ibn ‘Abidῑn Al Shāmῑ (d.1252 AH) (in print)
  • Al Lubāb F Shar Al Kitāb by ‘Abdul Ghanῑ Al Maydānῑ (d.1298 AH) (in print)
  • ‘Umdah Al Ri’āyah Shar Shar Al Wiqāyah by ‘Allāmah ‘Abdul Ḥayy Al Lucknawῑ (d.1304 AH) (in print)
  • Majallah Al Akām Al ‘Adliyyah by the scholars of the Ottoman Empire (in print)
  • Shar Majallah Al Akām by Khālid Al Atāsῑ (d.1326 AH) (in print)
  • Durar Al ukkām by ‘Alῑ Ḥaidar (d.1321 AH) (in print)

An Important Point to Remember

When looking for the ruling of a Mas’alah according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab, it is important for one to maintain the order mentioned above; starting with Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah and moving down to the books of the later Fuqahā.

After one has checked all of the above, he should refer to the books written by the Fuqahā of the Indian Sub-continent.

The purpose behind researching the books written by the Fuqahā of the Indian Sub-continent is to compare and analyse the manner in which one has understood the Mas’alah with how the Fuqahā of the Indian Sub-continent understood it.

The Books Written by the Scholars of the Indian Sub-continent

  • Fatāwā Rashdiyyah by Maulānā Rashῑd Aḥmad Gangohῑ (d.1323 AH)
  • Imdādul Fatāwā by Ḥaḍrat Thānwῑ (d.1362 AH)
  • Kifāyatul Muft by Muftῑ Kifāyatullah (d.1372 AH)
  • Fatāwā Khayriyyah by Muftῑ Khair Muḥammad Jālandhrῑ (d.1391 AH)
  • Imdādul Akām by Muftῑ Ẓafar Aḥmad ‘Uthmānῑ (d.1394 AH)
  • Jawāhir Al Fiqh by Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ (d.1396 AH)
  • Fatāwā Mamūdiyyah by Muftῑ Maḥmūd Ḥasan Gangohῑ (d.1417 AH)
  • Muntakabul Fatāwā by Muftῑ Nizāmud Dῑn A’zamῑ (d.1420 AH)
  • Fatāwā Ramiyyah by Muftῑ ‘Abdul Raḥῑm Lājpūrῑ (d.1422 AH)
  • Asanul Fatāwā by Muftῑ Rashῑd Aḥmad Ludhiyānwῑ (d.1422 AH)
  • Aap Kei Masāil Aur Unkā al by Maulānā Yūsuf Ludhiyānwῑ
  • Fatāwā Dārul ‘Ulūm Deoband
  • Mamūdul Fatāwā by Muftῑ Aḥmad Khānpūrῑ
  • Fatāwā Dniyyah by Muftῑ Isma’ῑl Kacholwῑ

Important Books on anaf Uūl Al adth

The important books written on Ḥanafῑ Uṣūl Al Ḥadῑth include:

  • Dirāsātun F Uūl Al adth ‘Alā Manhaj Al anafiyyah by ‘Abdul Majῑd Al Tarkamānῑ
  • Taqwm Al Adillah F Usūl Al Fiqh; section on Al Sunnah by Abu Zayd Al Dabusi (d.430 AH)
  • Uūl Al Sarakhs; section on Al Sunnah by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH)
  • Kashf Al Asrār Shar Uūl Al Bazdaw by ‘Alā Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ (d.730 AH)
  • Al Talw Shar Al Taw; section on Al Sunnah by Sa’d Al Dῑn Al Taftāzānῑ (d.792 AH)
  • Al Taqrr Wal Tabr Shar Al Tarr; section on Al Sunnah by Ibn Amῑr Al Ḥāj (d.879 AH)
  • Nūrul Anwār; section on Al Sunnah by Mullā Jῑwan (d.1130 AH)
  • Al Muwāzanah Bayn Manhajil anafiyyah Wa Manhaj Al Muaddithn F Qubūl Al Aādth Wa Raddihā by ‘Adnān ‘Alῑ Al Khiḍr

And Allah Ta‘ālā knows best
Maulana Mu’ādh Chati

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai


[1] I am currently working on a thesis detailing Hanafi Usul Al Ifta, the thesis contains valuable notes and explanations from my teachers and various books that I am researching. I humbly request all readers to make du’a that I am able to complete it soon and that Allah grants it acceptance. Insha’Allah, once complete, it shall be uploaded to www.darulahnaaf.com.

[2]

اعلم بأن الواجب اتباع ما- ترجيحه عن أهله قد علم- أو كان ظاهر الرواية ولم- يرجحوا خلاف ذاك فاعلم

وقولي “أو كان ظاهر الرواية الخ” معناه أن ما كان من المسائل في الكتب التي رويت عن محمد بن الحسن رضي الله عنه رواية ظاهرة يفتى به وإن لم يصرحوا بتصحيحه نعم لو صححوا رواية أخرى من غير كتب ظاهر الرواية يتبع ما صححوه

[3] There is a difference of opinion between the Ḥanafῑ Fuqahā over the number of books that compose the Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية):

  • ‘Allāmah ‘Abdul Ḥayy Lucknawῑ has recorded a view in his introduction to Al Hidāyah that the books of  Ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 3; Al Aṣl (الأصل), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات) and Al Muḥῑt (المحيط) Na’ῑm Ashraf has stated that this was the view of Mῑr Jān Al Hyderabādῑ. (This view is extremely weak)
  • The books of ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 4

The Fuqahā who have adopted this view now differ over the names of these 4 books:

  • According to ‘Allāmah Itqānῑ, ‘Allāmah Bābartῑ and Qādhῑ Zādah, they are: Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr (الجامع الصغير), Al Jāmi’ Al Kābῑr (الجامع الكبير), Al Aṣl (الأصل), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات)
  • According to ‘Allāmah Jurjānῑ and Muḥammad ‘Alῑ Al Thānwῑ, they are: Al Aṣl (الأصل), Al Jāmi’ Al Kābῑr (الجامع الكبير), Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr (الجامع الصغير), Al Siyar Al Kabῑr (السير الكبير)

(This view is weak as Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات)is an established book of the ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية)

  • According to ‘Allāmah Ibn Kamāl Bāshā, ‘Allāmah Ṭashkūprῑ Zādah, ‘Allāmah Ibn Al Hanā’ῑ’ (in one view), ‘Allāmah Taqῑ Al Dῑn Al Tamῑmῑ, ‘Allāmah Bῑrῑ Zādah, ‘Allāmah Hamawῑ, ‘Abdul Walῑ ibn ‘Abdillah Al Maghribῑ Al Dimyāṭῑ, Imām Al Kafawῑ and the author of Al Muḍmarāt, the books of ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 5; Al Aṣl (الأصل), Al Jāmi’ Al Kābῑr (الجامع الكبير), Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr (الجامع الصغير), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات), Al Siyar Al Kabῑr (السير الكبير)

The researchers of Nāẓūratul Ḥaq have stated that the statements of Burhān Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ (d.616 AH) indicate that he was also of this view.

Note: Muft usain Kadodia Ṣāḥib, ‘Allāmah Luayy Al Khalῑlῑ, and Muḥammad Bwenūkālin have also given preference to the view that the books of ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 5, considering that Al Siyar Al Saghῑr (السير الصغير) is actually a part of Al Aṣl (الأصل). The researchers of Nāẓūratul Ḥaq have preferred this view stating that Al Siyar Al Saghir (السير الصغير) is actually the chapter Al Siyar found in Al Aṣl (الأصل). It was only considered a separate book once Imam Muhammad wrote Al Siyar Al Kabῑr (السير الكبير) and thus a differentiation was needed between it and the chapter Al Siyar, found in Al Aṣl (الأصل).

The researchers of Nāẓūratul Ḥaq have presented two evidences that indicate Al Siyar Al Saghir as being a part of Al Asl:

  • Imām Qudūrῑ has quoted Al Siyar Al Saghῑr (السير الصغير) in his commentary upon Mukhtasar Al Karkhῑ (مختصر الكرخي). When this quotation is compared to what Imam Muhammad has written in the chapter of Al Siyar (السير) in Al Aṣl (الأصل), the quotation matches exactly with what is written in the chapter of Al Siyar in Al Asl (الأصل).
  • Ḥākim Al Shahῑd has written an abridgement of Al Aṣl (الأصل) titled Al Kāfῑ. In Al Kāfῑ (الكافي), he has labelled the (abridged) chapter of Al Siyar (السير) with the name Kitāb Al Siyar Al Saghῑr (السير الصغير)

In his commentary upon Sharḥ ‘Uqūd Rasmil Muftῑ, titled Is’ādul Muftῑ, Dr. Ṣalāḥ Abul Ḥāj has provided three more evidences that indicate Al Siyar Al Saghῑr (السير الصغير) as being a part of Al Aṣl (الأصل):

  • The author of Kashf Al Ẓunūn has related from the books Al Manthūrah who states:

الْكُتُبُ الَّتِيْ هِيَ ظَاهِرُ الرِّوَايَةِ لِمُحَمَّدٍ خَمْسَةٌ الْجَامِعُ الصَّغِيْرُ وَالْمَبْسُوْطُ وَالْجَامِعُ الْكَبِيْرُ وَالزِّيَادَاتُ وَالسِّيَرُ الْكَبِيْرُ

“The books of ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) of Imām Muḥammad are five; Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr (الجامع الصغير), Al Mabsut (المبسوط), Al Jāmi’ Al Kābῑr (الجامع الكبير), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات) and Al Siyar Al Kabῑr (السير الكبير)”

  • When ‘Allāmah Burhān Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ discusses his method in his book, Al Muḥῑṭ Al Burhānῑ, he states:

جَمَعْتُ مَسَائِلَ الْمَبْسُوْطِ وَالْجَامِعَيْنِ وَالسِّيَرٍ وَالزِّيَادَاتِ وَأَلْحَقْتُ بِهِ مَسَائِلَ النَّوَادِرَ

“I have gathered the Masail of Al Mabsut (المبسوط), the two Al Jāmi’ (Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr (الجامع الصغير) and Al Jāmi’ Al Kābῑr (الجامع الكبير), Al Siyar (السير) and Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات). I have then added to this the Masāil of Al Nawādir (النوادر)”

Hence, ‘Allāmah Burhān Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ did not mention Al Siyar Al Saghῑr (السير الصغير) as a separate book.

  • ‘Allāmah Tashkūpri Zādah has not mentioned Al Siyar Al Saghῑr (السير الصغير) as from amongst the ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية)
  • According to ‘Allāmah Ibn Nujaym, ‘Allāmah Ibnul Hanā’ῑ’ (in one view), ‘Allāmah Ṭaḥṭāwῑ, ‘Allāmah Ibn ‘Abidῑn, ‘Allāmah Lucknawῑ, Muḥammad Bakhῑt Al Muti’ῑ’, Abū Zuhrā, Muftῑ ‘Amῑmul Ihsān, Al Qasmῑ, Muftῑ Taqῑ Uthmānῑ, Muḥammad Mahrūs Al Mudarris and Aḥmād Al Naqῑb, the books of ẓāhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 6; Al Aṣl (الأصل), Al Jāmi’ Al Kabῑr (الجامع الكبير), Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr (الجامع الصغير), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات), Al Siyar Al Kabῑr (السير الكبير), Al Siyar Al Saghῑr (السير الصغير).

(Summarised from ‘Asbābu ‘Udūl Al Ḥanafiyyah ‘Anil Futyā Bi Ẓahir Al Riwāyah’ p.49 – p.55 Dārul Fatḥ)

[4] Hafidh Al Dhahabi has preferred the view that he passed away in 375, whilst Qasim ibn Qutlubughah claims that he passed away in 393 AH.

[5]

اعلم أنه قد اشتهر أن المتون موضوعة لنقل أصل المذهب ومسائل ظاهر الرواية وهذا حكم غالبي لا كلي فإنه كثيرا ما يذكر أرباب المتون مسألة هي من تخريجات المشايخ المتقدمين مخالفة لمسلك الأئمة كمسألة العشر في العشر في باب نجاسة الحوص وطهارته فإنها من تحديدات المشايخ وأصل المذهب خال عن هذا وكذا ما اشتهر أن المتون موضوعة لنقل مذهب الإمام أبي حنيفة فهو حكم غالبي لا أكثري فكثيرا ما ذكروا فيها مذهب صاحبيه إذا كان راجحا كما في بحث السجدة بالجبهة والأنف وغيره

إسعاد المفتي لصلاح أبي الحاج (278) دار البشائر الإسلامية

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *