Is Hibah (Gifting) Valid in the Following Case?

Question:

Assalaamu alaikum warahmatullah Mufti sahib,

Please could you advise on validity of hiba (gifting) in following case,

Hiba (gifting) of a property was done by the father to the son. It was witnessed by two other Muslims and also written and signed by the father that the property has been gifted.

I have not seen the documentation personally but assume it is also written on the document that the son accepted the gifting. However after the death of the father the son realised that all of the property (deeds) are still on the father name.The son lives in the property with his wife and children for number of years. The father did not reside in the property that was gifted to the son and only visited.

Is the aforementioned hiba valid? Or is it an additional condition that the ownership of property in terms of any legal documentation and deeds must (according to law of the country – in this case England) be transferred to the son’s name.

And does this transfer of property ownership have to be done immediately at time of hiba or can be done at any time within lifetime of the father for validity of hiba.

(Question published as received)

Answer:

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-raḥmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

If the father has given his property to his son as an outright gift and relinquished all rights of the property[1], and the son has taken possession of the property and even resides in it, the gift is valid.[2]

It is not a requirement for the validity of the gift in Shariah to be legally transferred to the giftee. However it is advisable to do so. We also advice to record the gift in a private document for future reference.

And Allah Ta‘ālā knows best          

(Mufti) Bilal Issak al-Mahmudi
Fatwa Dept.

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai


[1]

قال محمد بن علي بن محمد الحِصْني المعروف بعلاء الدين الحصكفي الحنفي (المتوفى: 1088هـ) : (و) تصح (بقبض بلا إذن في المجلس) فإنه هنا كالقبول فاختص بالمجلس (وبعده به) أي بعد المجلس بالإذن، وفي المحيط لو كان أمره بالقبض حين وهبه لا يتقيد بالمجلس ويجوز القبض بعده (والتمكن من القبض كالقبض فلو وهب لرجل ثيابا في صندوق مقفل ودفع إليه الصندوق لم يكن قبضا) لعدم تمكنه من القبض (وإن مفتوحا كان قبضا لتمكنه منه) فإنه كالتخلية في البيع اختيار وفي الدرر والمختار صحته بالتخلية في صحيح الهبة لا فاسدها وفي النتف ثلاثة عشر عقدا لا تصح بلا قبض (ولو نهاه) عن القبض (لم يصح) قبضه (مطلقا) ولو في المجلس؛ لأن الصريح أقوى من الدلالة … (وتتم) الهبة (بالقبض) الكامل
الدر المختار مع رد المحتار، ج ٥، ص ٦٩٠. دار الفكر – بيروت

[2]

قال زين الدين بن إبراهيم بن محمد، المعروف بابن نجيم المصري (المتوفى: 970هـ) : (قوله وهبة الأب لطفلة تتم بالعقد) لأن قبض الأب ينوب عنه وشمل كلامه ما إذا كانت في يد مودع الأب لأن يده كيده بخلاف ما إذا كانت في يد الغاصب أو المرتهن أو المستأجر حيث لا تجوز الهبة لعدم قبضه لأن قبضهم لأنفسهم وشمل ما إذا لم يشهد فإن الإشهاد ليس بشرط لصحتها وما في الكافي للحاكم من إشهاد الأب عليها فللاحتياط للتحرز عن جحوده أو جحود ورثته وشمل ما إذا لم يقبل الأب لأن الأب يتولاه فاكتفى فيه بالإيجاب كبيع ماله من ابنه الصغير
البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق، ج ٧، ص ٢٨٨. دار الكتاب الإسلامي

فتاواى محمودية، ج ٢٤، ص ٥٧. كتاب الهبة. جامعة فاروقية


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