Writing “Divorce” on Paper

Question:

Country: United Kingdom

Assalamu alaykum, I wanted to ask a question based on divorce. If a husband writes just ‘divorce’ 3 times on a paper and never shows the wife and the wife finds it a year on is that classed as a divorce? There was no explanation as to who the divorce was to or any names or signature. No witnesses either. When the wife asks the husband, he says he didn’t mean it that’s why he didn’t give it to her, he said he was angry but had no intention of divorce therefore never gave the paper to the woman. Is this classed as a divorce? It didn’t say ‘I divorce this and this person’ or ‘I divorce you’ just ‘divorce’ three times on a blank paper.

(Question published as received)

Answer:

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-ramatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In the enquired scenario, ṭalāq did not take place. [1]

And Allāh Ta‘ālā Knows Best             
(Mufti) Bilal al-Mahmudi

Concurred by,
Mufti Luqman Hansrot
Mufti Faisal al-Mahmudi


[1]

قال الكاساني في البدائع: وَأَمَّا النَّوْعُ الثَّانِي فَهُوَ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ عَلَى قِرْطَاسٍ أَوْ لَوْحٍ أَوْ أَرْضٍ أَوْ حَائِطٍ كِتَابَةً مُسْتَبِينَةً لَكِنْ لَا عَلَى وَجْهِ الْمُخَاطَبَةِ امْرَأَتُهُ طَالِقٌ فَيُسْأَلُ عَنْ نِيَّتِهِ؛ فَإِنْ قَالَ: نَوَيْتُ بِهِ الطَّلَاقَ وَقَعَ، وَإِنْ قَالَ: لَمْ أَنْوِ بِهِ الطَّلَاقَ صُدِّقَ فِي الْقَضَاءِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْكِتَابَةَ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَجْهِ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْكِتَابَةِ لِأَنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ قَدْ يَكْتُبُ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَجْهِ وَيُرِيدُ بِهِ الطَّلَاقَ وَقَدْ يَكْتُبُ لِتَجْوِيدِ الْخَطِّ فَلَا يُحْمَلُ عَلَى الطَّلَاقِ إلَّا بِالنِّيَّةِ وَإِنْ كُتِبَتْ كِتَابَةٌ غَيْرُ مُسْتَبِينَةٍ بِأَنْ كَتَبَ عَلَى الْمَاءِ أَوْ عَلَى الْهَوَاءِ فَذَلِكَ لَيْسَ بِشَيْءٍ حَتَّى لَا يَقَعَ بِهِ الطَّلَاقُ وَإِنْ نَوَى؛ لِأَنَّ مَا لَا تَسْتَبِينُ بِهِ الْحُرُوفُ لَا يُسَمَّى كِتَابَةً فَكَانَ مُلْحَقًا بِالْعَدَمِ، وَإِنْ كَتَبَ كِتَابَةً مَرْسُومَةً عَلَى طَرِيقِ الْخِطَابِ وَالرِّسَالَةِ مِثْلُ: أَنْ يَكْتُبَ أَمَّا بَعْدَ يَا فُلَانَةُ فَأَنْتِ طَالِقٌ أَوْ إذَا وَصَلَ كِتَابِي إلَيْك فَأَنْتِ طَالِقٌ يَقَعُ بِهِ الطَّلَاقُ، وَلَوْ قَالَ: مَا أَرَدْتُ بِهِ الطَّلَاقَ أَصْلًا لَا يُصَدَّقُ إلَّا أَنْ يَقُولَ: نَوَيْت طَلَاقًا مِنْ وَثَاقٍ فَيُصَدَّقُ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ؛ لِأَنَّ الْكِتَابَةَ الْمَرْسُومَةَ جَارِيَةٌ مَجْرَى الْخِطَابِ أَلَا تَرَى أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – كَانَ يُبَلِّغُ بِالْخِطَابِ مِرَّةً وَبِالْكِتَابِ أُخْرَى وَبِالرَّسُولِ ثَالِثًا؟
بدائع الصنائع. ج ٣، ص ١٠٩

 مستبینہ غیر مرسومہ: اگر یوں ہی کسی کاگذ کے کسی ٹکرے یا دیوار پر بیوی کی طرف اضافت کے بغیر صرف یہ لکھے کہ طلاق ہے یا طلاق دی، اور یہ تحریر بیوی کو نہ بھیجے تو یہ کتابت مستبینہ غیر مرسومہ ہے۔
کتابت مستبینہ غیر مرسومہ سے طلاق ایسی صورت میں واقع ہوگی جب کہ شوہر کہے کے میری نیت بیوی کو طلاق دینے کی تھی
فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا. ج ٤، ص ١٥٩. زمزم


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